Pulmonology is the medical specialty dealing with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Pulmonology is called chest medicine and respiratory medicine in some countries and areas. Pulmonology is considered a branch of internal medicine, and is related to intensive care medicine. Pulmonology often involves managing patients who need life support andmechanical ventilation. Pulmonologists are specially trained in diseases and conditions of the chest, particularly pneumonia, asthma, tuberculosis, emphysema, and complicated chest infections.
• Laboratory investigation of blood (blood tests). Sometimes arterial blood gas measurements are also required.
• Spirometry (the determination of lung volumes in time by breathing into a dedicated machine; response to bronchodilatators anddiffusion of carbon monoxide)
• Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), endobronchial and transbronchial biopsy and epithelial brushing
• Chest X-rays
• CT scanning (MRI scanning is rarely used)
• Scintigraphy and other methods of nuclear medicine
• Positron emission tomography (especially in lung cancer)
• Polysomnography (sleep studies) commonly used for the diagnosis of Sleep apnea
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