A large gastric ulcer in the stomach presents with severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. Quite often these ulcers heal by medication. These ulcers can bleed massively requiring transfusion of blood and sometimes surgery by gastrointestinal treatment doctors. Surgery for ulcers will be in the form of a partial gastrectomy called Gastric Surgery.
Duodenal ulcers can cause bleeding or sometimes gastric outlet obstruction causing persistent vomiting. Surgery for this ailment will be in the form of gastro-jejunostomy and truncal vagotomy.
Cancer of the stomach is a very common ailment in southern India. These patients present with a varied presentation which includes weight loss, pain abdomen, vomiting, or sometimes no symptoms at all. An upper GI endoscopy is usually diagnostic. Cancer of the stomach will primarily require surgery in the form of partial, total gastrectomy, or bypass followed by chemotherapy if necessary.
Acid injury to the stomach due to accidental or suicidal ingestion of bathroom acid causes severe damage to the stomach, which will require emergency or elective surgery on the stomach like Bypass Gastric Surgery and Gastric Sleeve Surgery
Severe heartburn due to hiatus hernia will at times require surgical treatment in the form of fundoplication to reconstruct a new valve at the junction between the food pipe and stomach.
Collection of pus in the liver is a common occurrence, especially in alcoholics needing antibiotics and anti-amoebic and repeated aspiration by pushing a needle into it under ultrasound guidance. Some large abscesses located in inaccessible areas of the liver, multiple abscesses, and those threatening to rupture will require surgical intervention. Most of this abscess can be tackled by minimal access surgery namely laparoscopy and they recover very early and very well. An occasional patient may require an opening of the abdomen and draining of the pus.
Cysts of the liver are well-encapsulated fluid collections. Most simple cysts are congenital and get noticed only when they cause symptoms. A dull ache is a usual presentation. They can usually be treated without surgery. Rarely does surgery become necessary in the form of deroofing of the cyst? Polycystic liver disease is another uncommon condition and can be associated with polycystic kidney and sometimes pancreatic disease. Large symptomatic cysts require laparoscopic puncture from time to time.
Common liver affliction in India, hydatid cyst is a parasitic disease caused by a certain tapeworm carried by domestic dogs. Unlike simple cysts, these are active cysts and keep growing. The majority of these cysts will require surgical treatment either by laparoscopic or open methods. The treatment for these cysts is either a marsupialization or a cysto-pericystectomy. Spillage of cyst contents can sometimes cause an anaphylactic reaction and occasionally dissemination of hydatid disease.
Cancer of the liver is a dreaded condition affecting both young and the old. Primary cancers of the liver originate denovo in the liver and a cirrhotic liver damaged by viruses or alcohol is prone to germinating cancer in its cells. Most cancers from different digestive organs in the abdomen spread to the liver causing secondary deposits. Secondary cancer deposits from colon cancer are amenable to liver resection.
Patients with injury to the liver often benefit from laparoscopy to evaluate the extent of the injury and decide on opening the abdomen for definitive surgery.
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